# Representative sampling for Mining.

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling automated machines, equipment and complete solutions provide mining customers with the data needed for their exploration and mining processes to decide where and how to mine to get the most from the deposit…

Mining

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling automated machines, equipment and complete solutions provide mining customers with the data needed for their exploration and mining processes to decide where and how to mine to get the most from the deposit.

Representative sampling for further analysis ensures that you avoid:

• Lower product quality than expected
• Not getting paid for the right ore quality
• Product forecasting problems
• Inefficient processes as a result of unexpected material properties
• Excessive use of high-grade ore and better control over mine lifetime

M&W JAWO Sampling has since the 1980s delivered automated sampling solutions to the mining industry for a variety of mining customers such as Glencore, LKAB, AngloGold Ashanti, Severstal, Baffinland, Boliden and Rio Tinto for materials such as e.g. iron ore, copper, copper concentrate, gold, titanium, coal, bauxite, potash and nickel, including the largest automated sampling solution ever installed in Europe for iron ore.

Iron ore

Coal

Copper

# Representative sampling for Metals Refining & Minerals Processing.

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in metals refining & mineral processing with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis…

Metals Refining and Mineral Processing

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in metals refining & mineral processing with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis.

Obtaining representative samples of the total lot is crucial as there otherwise is little point in having made significant investments in laboratory equipment and analytical competences.

From accurate and precise data of the total lot customers in mineral processing and metals refining are able to:

• Verify whether they receive or sell products which meet contract requirements
• Monitor and optimize production and quality control process
• Improve mixing and blending operations to obtain better end-products

M&W JAWO Sampling has since the 1980s delivered automated sampling solutions to the metals refining & mineral processing industry for a large number of customers such as Norsk Hydro, Arcelor Mittal, SSAB, Ma’aden, Outokumpu, Voest Alpine, Umicore, Posco and Alcoa for materials such as e.g. iron, steel, aluminium, ferrosilicon, zinc, ore, copper, copper concentrate, gold, nickel and precious metals from recyclables.

Iron Pellets

Ferrosilicon and silicon

Electro scrap for precious metals

# Representative sampling and instruments for Power Plants.

M&W JAWO Sampling extraction samplers, online instruments and fuel sampling solutions to for power and heat plants provide customers with important real-time data by…

Power and Heat Plants

M&W JAWO Sampling extraction samplers, online instruments and fuel sampling solutions to for power and heat plants provide customers with important real-time data by:

• Measuring the fuel mass-flow allowing the operator to optimize the combustion process
• Obtaining isokinetic and representative fuel dust samples for particle size analysis for classifier optimization, mill state determination and fuel properties
• Providing online and real-time measurement of unburned carbon levels (UBC) in fly ash for better combustion, reduced fuel consumption and environmental costs
• Verifying that fuel received (coal or biomass) meets contract requirements (e.g. for moisture, ash content and particle size distribution)
• Monitoring and optimizing combustion efficiency in general

M&W JAWO Sampling has since the 1980s invented several ground-breaking extraction samplers and online instruments for the power and heat sector such as the Pulverized Fuel Sampler (rotorprobe) for isokinetic sampling as well as the world’s first online instrument for measurement of unburned carbon levels in fly ash.

More than 200+ power plants in 5 continents have installed M&W JAWO Sampling equipment for coal, different kinds of biomass and ash.

Utilities include Uniper, Drax, Iberdrola, Ørsted, Fortum, Alliant, BHEL, NTPC, EdF, Enel, Engie and Iberdrola.

Biomass power and heat plants

Coal fired power plants

Fly and Bottom ash

# Representative sampling for Cement and Limestone.

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in the cement and limestone industry with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis…

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in the cement and limestone industry with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis.

Customers use our equipment for sampling limestone, powder, clinker, slag and finished cement. Typical sampling focus areas include: Raw and finished products, at the loadout and custody transfer.

Representative sampling for further analysis enables you to:

• Get limestone with the features you expect in terms of purity (CaCO3 and Carbonates), unwanted impurities (K2O and MgO), grain size, reactivity after sintering (fast or slow) and potential for hard burning.
• Find the right correlation between properties of limestone, calcination parameters and  final properties of hydrated lime
• Determining the strength of lump lime
• For cement and concrete to determine abrasiveness (dust levels), unwanted additives (e.g. alkaline compounds, chromium, crystalline silica), water/cement ratio etc.

M&W JAWO Sampling has delivered sampling solutions to more than 350+ different projects in the cement, cement clinker and limestone industry since the mid 1980s. Customers have bought anything from complete sampling and preparation plants, on-stream systems as well as individual sampling extraction instruments such as screw conveyors, screw conveyors with mixing tanks and Air Slide Samplers as well as sampling materials handling equipment like crushers, conveyors etc.

Customers include LafargeHolcim, Heidelberg Cement, Cemex, Boral, Siam Cement, Aalborg Portland and FLS.

Limestone

Cement

# Representative sampling for Fertilizer.

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in the fertilizer industry with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis…

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in the fertilizer industry with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis.

From accurate and precise data of the total lot customers in the fertilizer industry are able to:

• Verify whether they receive or sell products which meet contract requirements in terms of quality, homogeneity and particle size
• Monitor and optimize production and quality control process
• Improve mixing and blending operations to obtain better end-products

M&W JAWO Sampling has since the 1990s delivered automated sampling solutions to the fertilizer industry for companies such as K+S Kali, K+S Potash Canada, Yara, Norsk Hydro, OCP, El-Nasr Co. For Intermediate Chemicals and Kemira for potash, urea, phosphatic fertilizer and other mineral fertilizers from magnesium and sulphur.

Pot ash

Phospatic fertilizer

Urea

# Representative sampling for Oil & Gas.

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in oil and gas with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis…

Oil & Gas

M&W JAWO Sampling automated and representative sampling machines, equipment and complete solutions provide customers in oil and gas with representative and consistent samples for quality analysis.

Customers use our solutions for determining the physical properties and chemical constituents for primary and secondary products such as oil shale, green pet coke, pelletized sulfur.

Oil and gas customers who have bought our automated sampling systems include Petrofac and Saudi Aramco.

Furthermore, Mark & Wedell serves a number of customers in the oil & gas sector with the Annulus Pressure Relief System allowing for secure and simple oil and gas well stimulation up to 10,000 psi based on easily replaceable burs disc technology.

Customers include Aker BP, Shell, BP, Mærsk Oil & Gas (now Total), Itacha Energy and Hess as well as oil service companies such as Schlumberger and Stimwell Oil Services.

Pet coke

Pelletized sulfur

Oil shale

## Introducing M&W JAWO Sampling.

M&W JAWO Sampling offers customers a full range of automated and customized machines, instruments and complete systems for representative sampling of bulk material, powder and dust particles for a wide variety of industries. In addition, customers get access to our 35+ years of experience through dialogue with our sampling educated employees.

Obtaining representative samples of the total lot before analysis is crucial – otherwise there is little point in having made significant investments in laboratory equipment and analytical competences.

You will be assured sampling solutions which produce consistent samples for your quality analysis – accurately and precisely representing the total lot from which it was collected.

As a result you get unbiased and reproduceable samples for international commodities such as aluminium, ash, bauxite, biomass, building materials, calcium, cement and cement clinker, coal, coke, copper concentrate, chromite ore, electro scrap, fertilizer, grain, granulates, iron ore/sinter/pellets, gold, industrial powders, lignite, limestone, heavy mineral sands, quartz, platinum, pot ash, rock salt, silicon and solid chemicals.

M&W JAWO Sampling is one of the global pioneers in the development and production of automated sampling equipment, instruments and whole system solutions since 1982.
In 1999 Mark & Wedell acquired FLS JAWO Handling from FLSmidth and continued developing a range of specific sampling products. In 2019 Mark & Wedell integrated “M&W Asketeknik” (extraction samplers and instruments primarily for the power and heat industry) into the M&W JAWO Sampling business unit.

What’s in it for you?

By operating our automated sampling solutions you are getting reliable knowledge about the properties of the material you buy, sell or produce enabling you to:

• Calculate the correct amount or value for each batch of material you receive or deliver – thereby reducing the risk of either overpaying or underselling
• Confirm that you receive or sell products which meet contract requirements
• Monitor and optimize your production and quality control process
• Improve your mixing and blending operations to obtain better end-products
• Estimate type and amounts of by-products from your processed or manufactured batches
• Document the environmental impact and/or pollution from your production
• For customers where larger or expensive quantities of material are bought or sold, the economic impact of ensuring representative and consistent samples will be substantial.
• By buying the right sampling solution you are likely to save a lot of money.

M&W JAWO Sampling equipment and sampling systems operate in accordance with approved international material standards such as ISO, ASME, GOST, EN as well as DS3077 (2013).

All sampling equipment and solutions aim for compliance with the principles laid down in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and gives you reliable knowledge of the material properties of your sample such as:

• Moisture content
• Mineral proportions
• Contamination
• Hardness
• Particle Size Distribution

Who else bought?

M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied more than 3,000 automated sampling solutions to more than 950 projects in 85+ countries within the mining, mineral processing & metals refining, oil & gas, power and heat generation, cement, fertilizer, recycling and waste handling, building materials, food and pharma sectors.

Our product range:

• Primary samplers: (e.g. Cross Stream Sampler, Front-Back Stream Sampler, Vezin Sampler, Bucket Sampler, Cross Belt Hammer Sampler and Truck Sampler)
• Secondary samplers, Dividers and Splitters: (e.g. Rotary Tube Divider, Rotary Tube Splitter, Rotary Disc Divider, Dual Splitter and Mobile Dividing Plant)
• Extraction samplers: (e.g. Screw Sampler, Screw Sampler with Mixing tank, Air Slide Sampler, Particle Sampler, Pulverized Fuel Sampler and Unburned Carbon Online Analyzer)
• Particle size reduction: (Twin Roll Crusher, Jaw Crusher and Shredders)
• Materials transfer equipment: (e.g. Bucket Elevators, Bucket Lifter, Screw Conveyor, Vibration Feeder, Dosing Conveyor)
• Sample magazines: (Sample magazines, containers and buckets)
• Control cabinets

Recent

## 950+ projects in 85+ countries around the world.

950+ projects in 85+ countries
3000+ units installed
970+ different customers

## JAWO Sampling Product Categories

###### Primary Samplers
• Cross Stream Sampler (CSS)
• Cross-Belt Sampler (CBS)
• Vezin Sampler (VS)
• Bucket Sampler (BS)
• Front-Back Stream Sampler (FBSS)
• Vezin Sampler with Mixing Tank (VSMX)
###### Secondary Samplers, dividers and splitters
• Rotary Tube Divider (RTD)
• Rotary Disc Divider (RDD)
• Rotary Tube Splitter (RTS)
• Dividing Plant (DP)
• Vertical Disc Divider (VDD)
• Diverter Gate (DG)
###### Exctraction Samplers & online analyzers
• Pulverised Fuel Sampler Automatic (PFSA)
• Screw Sampler Mixing Tank (SMX)
• Unburned Carbon Online Analyser (UBC-2400)
• Unburned Carbon Online Analyser (UBC-2000)
• Unburned Carbon Online Analyser (UBC-2200)
• Unburned Carbon Online Analyser (UBC-3000)
###### Particle Size Reduction
• Twin Roll Crusher (TRC)
• Twin Roll Shredder (TRS)
###### Material transfer equipment
• Dosing Conveyor (DoC)
• Screw Conveyor (SC)
• Bucket Belt Elevator (BBE)
• Bucket Chain Elevator (BCE)
• Bucket Lifter (BL)
• Vibration Feeder (VF)
###### Sample magazines
• Sample Magazine (SM)
• Sample Magazine Long (SM-L)
• Mobile Sampling Container (MSC)
• Stainless Steel Buckets (SSB)
• Plastic Bucket (PB)
###### Control cabinets
• Control Cabinets (CC-S)
• Control Cabinets (CC-C)
###### Manpower & Services
• Mechanical Engineering (ME)
• Electrical Engineering (EE)
• Project Management (PM)
• Online link to customers installation for service and troubleshooting
• Training and Education (T&E)
• Automation Engineering (AE)
###### Other Equipment
• Automatic Trimming Damper (ATD)

M&W JAWO Sampling equipment and sampling systems operate in accordance with approved international material standards such as ISO, ASME, GOST, EN as well as DS3077 (2013). All sampling equipment and solutions aim for compliance with the principles laid down in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and gives our customers reliable knowledge of the material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, mineral proportions and content grade essential for commercial, operational and technical characterization.

## Product Overview.

M&W is building the bridge between the Theory Of Sampling (TOS) and a sampling solution for any customer that require a high-quality representative sampling system.

Our sampling system comprises of several individual customized products that are constructed and positioned together. This ensures a solution that meets international standards or even exceed them.

Primary Samplers
Secondary Samplers, dividers and splitters
Particle Size Reduction
Control cabinets

## Selected M&W JAWO Sampling customers by sector.

Choose sector

• Mining

• Mineral processing & metals refining

• Power & Heat Generation

• Oil & Gas

• Cement

• Fertilizer

• Recycling, waste handling and building materials

• Food & Pharma

• EPC Contractors / Engineering

Mining

No items

## Why representative sampling?

• Why representative sampling? click to readmore

Obtaining representative samples of the total lot before analysis is crucial – otherwise there is little point in having made significant investments in laboratory equipment and analytical competences.

Representative samples are critical for correct decision making based on analytical data for industry, tradetechnology, science and regulatorsHowever, there is a complex way from heterogeneous materials in lots such as truck loads, railroad cars, shiploads, stockpiles and on conveyor belts (in the kg-ton range) to the very small aliquot (in g-µg range), which is the only material that is actually analysed.

Exactly how to get a documented representative analytical result across mass-reduction of up to six orders of magnitude is far from a direct materials’ handling issue. There are a number of specific principles and rules behind representativity as part of the Theory of Sampling (TOS)[1]

The concept of TOS was originally developed by Pierre Gy who identified eight sampling errors which represent everything that can go wrong in sampling, sub-sampling (sample mass reduction), sample preparation and sample presentation—due to heterogeneity and/or inferior sampling equipment design and performance.

During his 25 year career (1950-75) Pierre Gy worked out how to avoid committing such errors in the design, manufacture, maintenance and operation of sampling equipment and showed how their adverse impact on the total accumulated uncertainty could be reduced as much as possible when sampling in practice. He received two PhDs (in mineral processing and statistics) in the process[2].

The purpose of sampling is therefore to produce reliable small mass which is representative of the total mass of material from which it was collected i.e. to obtain a sample which accurately and precisely represents the total mass or lot. This primary sample is very often subject to further sub-sampling and sample preparation procedures, which ultimately produces an aliquot suitable for either laboratory analysis or physical testing. The type of testing or analysiis dependent on which characteristics are required for technological and industrial decision makingRegardless, the primary sampling is critical for the ultimate quality of the analytical results.

Figure 1. below shows the key results from Replication Experiments made at Elkem Metal, Canada, which showed that 35% of the total sampling variance (where mistakes can occur throughout the full sampling process) occured during the phase of primary sampling and 50% during the crushing phases i.e. 85% of the total sampling variance occurred before pulverization and laboratory  analysis.

In other words: it is of extreme importance that you are in control of your primary and secondary sampling process before final analyzis. Otherwise you draw (wrong) conclusions from the non-representative samples.

Figure 1. Replication Experiment at Elkem Metal – Canada.

Source: https://www.spectroscopyeurope.com/sampling/revisiting-replication-experiment.

For more about Replication Experiments, see Part 1 and Part 2 of The Replication Myth by Kim H. Esbensen et al[4][5].

A specific sampling process can either be representative – or not. If a sampling process is not representative, the result is only extracted and undefined, mass-reduced lumps of material which do not represent the original lot; these are called specimens

However, specimens are not worth analyzing, as they will not give valid information about the composition and physical characteristics of the lot. Only representative analytical aliquots can reduce the combined sampling-and-analysis errors to a desired minimum.

Drawing the (wrong) conclusions from non-representative samples can have major negative production control and financial consequences when you buy or sell materials.

And you might as well save the costs of laboratory hardware and analysts: Garbage In = Garbage Out.

Sampling must be both accurate (unbiased) and precise (reproducible) at all stages throughout the sampling process.

Source: http://www.statisticalengineering.com/Weibull/precision-bias.html

A representative sampling process is critically dependent upon three factors:

1: Unbiased and precise sampling equipment – demand clear and understandable documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposal to help.

2: TOS-informed sampling process design, installation and operation. Demand relevant documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposal to help.

3: Process staff & supervisors must possess a minimum of TOS-competence. If this does not exist in-house, request training and documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.

[1] For background: “Introduction to the Theory and practice of sampling” by Kim H. Esbensen (IMPublicationsOpen 2020)

[2] “Pierre Gy (1924–2015): the key concept of sampling errors” (Spectroscopy Europe/Asia 2018)

[3] “Pierre Gy’s development of the Theory of Sampling: a retrospective summary with a didactic tutorial on quantitative sampling of one-dimensional lots” by R.C.A. Minnitt and Kim H. Esbensen, TOS Forum 7.

[4] “The Replication Myth 1” by Kim H. Esbensen et al, NIR News

[5] “The Replication Myth 2: Quantifying empirical sampling plus analysis variability” by Kim H. Esbensen et al, NIR News

• How to do sampling?   click to readmore

Representative sampling must be both accurate (unbiased) and precise (reproducible). In order to be representative, a specific sampling process shall only be using equipment that is designed to eliminate (or reduce maximally) sampling bias and which simultaneously increases sampling precision as much as possible. Here is the short explanation why:

All material sampling targets (lots) are heterogeneous, it is only a matter of degree. This means that different samples, even though extracted by the exact same protocol, will never be identical, which manifests itself as a basic, non-vanishing sampling variability. Heterogeneity is one of two major influential factors behind sampling variability (inaccuracy). The sampling process itself will also result in sampling error effects that add to the total sampling uncertainty. All sampling must therefore aim for maximum Total Sampling Error (TSE) reduction. In order to do this effectively, economically and with confidence, there are sampling equipment and process design principles which must be acknowledged and followed. These rules are codified in the Theory of Sampling (TOS). M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.

For homogeneous materials, there is no reason to worry about sampling – because any sample will be an exact representative sample of the lot (big/small).

However, ALL materials – at all scales – visible, or not – are heterogeneous.

Representative sampling is not as simple as buying a specific sampling tool (equipment) with which to take on all the world’s materials. This will be futile. Despite many suppliers’ claim, there does not exist a “universal sampler” that will work for all materials and under all conditions because technological and industrial materials have very different compositional heterogeneities and other characteristics e.g. internal differences with respect to grain sizes , moisture, grain stickiness. But there exist professional solutions: most standard sampling equipment can be used in informed, TOS-compliant ways that can be made to work towards a state of “fit-for-purpose” representativity. This approach is called composite sampling.

Representative sampling is about mastering the necessary and sufficient TOS principles with which to make rational choices regarding the appropriate type of sampling tool and sampling protocol for a specific task, for a specific material, under customer-specific conditions. It takes professional competence and relevant experience to get all this right. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.

• Method, frequency and accuracy click to readmore

The method and frequency by which samples are collected and the resulting sampling accuracy, i.e. how closely collected samples represent the true characteristics of the target lot, depend on the nature of the material, particularly its compositional and distributional heterogeneity.

A homogeneous material would only require collection of a single sample in order to determine its characteristics accurately, whereas all heterogeneous materials with irregular particle size distribution and/or irregular constituent compositions, will require extraction of a sufficient number of small increments, which when combined into a composite sample, will be able to represent the total lot with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Increments must be collected from all spatial locations in the lot, with the number required critically depending on the material heterogeneity. TOS outlines the specific requirements that must be matched in order to be able to guarantee a specific threshold for fit-for-purpose heterogeneity.

For this to be possible it is of fundamental importance that all increments in the lot have the same probability of being included in the final sample. This is the “golden rule” of sampling, called the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP). To achieve this most effectively, wherever it is possible, it is desirable to sample the lot while it is in a dynamic state, i.e. when the lot is moving on a conveyor belt or in a duct/pipe as a continuous stream. Professional sampling equipment (and professional samplers) shall be able to sample both stationary (e.g. truck, train or pile) as well as moving (dynamic) lots in a documentable representative manner.

M&W JAWO Sampling is a specialist company, which has invested considerable time and practical efforts in understanding and combining mechanical & electrical design of individual machines/instruments/equipment and their interaction so as to match the materiel types sampled, with reference to relevant material standards and to the Theory of Sampling (TOS).

M&W JAWO Sampling equipment and sampling systems are designed to operate in accordance with approved international material standards: ISO, ASME, GOST, EN. All sampling solutions aim for compliance with the principles laid down in the Theory of Sampling (TOS), DS3077 (2013).

• Material Properties click to readmore

Correctly designed sampling equipment and a representative sampling plan is necessary in order to obtain reliable knowledge of the material properties which is essential for commercial, operational and technical characterization, such as:

• Moisture content
• Mineral proportions
• Contamination
• Hardness
• Particle Size distribution

A full sampling system solution takes care of the critically important primary sampling stage with an aim of attaining a fit-for-purpose representativity status. All subsequent sub-sampling stages comply with the same demands, ultimately delivering an analytical aliquot suitable for laboratory analysis.

• Practical benefits of representative sampling – “what’s in it for you” click to readmore

By operating our automated sampling solutions you are getting reliable knowledge about the properties of the material you buy, sell or produce enabling you to:

• Calculate the correct amount or value for each batch of material you receive or deliver – thereby reducing the risk of either overpaying or underselling
• Confirm that you receive or sell products which meet contract requirements
• Monitor and optimize your production and quality control process
• Improve your mixing and blending operations to obtain better end-products
• Estimate type and amounts of by-products from your processed or manufactured batches
• Document the environmental impact and/or pollution from your production
• For customers where larger or expensive quantities of material are bought or sold, the economic impact of ensuring representative and consistent samples will be substantial.
• By buying the right sampling solution you are likely to save a lot of money.

Note: It is important to resolve all potential issues related to primary sampling accuracy (sampling bias) before establishing a new, modifying or re-designing a specific sampling procedure. After this has been achieved, i.e. when a sampling procedure is developed or re-evaluated in combination with the continued use of all, or most of the sampling equipment recommended by M&W JAWO and for example checked by means of a full bias test or alternatively through a variographic or replicate analysis, the remaining final sampling uncertainty only has to deal with sampling precision.

General M&W JAWO Sampling procedure (variations occur reflecting different material heterogeneities):

1. Define the quality parameter(s) i.e. the analytes of interest
2. Delineate and prepare the lot (geometry, total mass, accessibility)
3. Select equipment matching appropriate sampling accuracy demands; fully representative or fit-for-purpose representativity
4. Set the remaining sampling precision required (for example 20% rel.)
5. Estimate primary sampling variability VI for the selected quality parameter(s), and establish the number of sampling unit’s (m) required to reach the desired precision level with a minimum number of increments (n)
6. For process sampling, define sampling intervals in minutes for time basis sampling, or in kg for mass-based sampling
7. Ascertain the material nominal top particle size in order to determine the appropriate increment mass
8. Determine the number of increments to be aggregated into composite samples (which is to be further sub-sampled)
9. Determine optimal sample division (sub-sampling) in order to deliver an analytical aliquot mass

• Sampling precision and the number of increments click to readmore

In all methods of sampling, sample preparation and analysis, errors are incurred, and the analytical results for any given parameter will deviate from the true value of that parameter. While the absolute deviation of a single result from the “true” value cannot be determined, it is possible to make an estimate of the sampling precision. This is the closeness with which the results of a series of measurements made on the same material agree among themselves, and the deviation of the mean of the results from an accepted reference value.

The desired overall precision for a lot is normally agreed between the parties concerned. In principle it is possible to design a sampling scheme by which an arbitrary level of precision can be achieved.

The overall precision can be estimated using Equation 1 where:

• PL [%] is the estimated index of overall precision of sampling, sample preparation and testing for the lot;
• VI is the primary increment variance;
• VPT is the preparation and testing variance;
• n is the number of increments per sub-lot;
• m is the number of sub-lots in the lot.

Equation 1:

${P}_{L}=2\sqrt{\frac{\frac{{V}_{I}}{n}+{V}_{PT}}{m}}$

If no previous sampling data is available, assumptions have to be made about the variability in order to devise a sampling scheme. After implementation of the sampling scheme, the precision actually achieved for a particular lot by the devised scheme can be measured.

If a given precision PL is required, the number of increments n and the number of sub-lots m can be found using Equation 2 and Equation 3 respectively. If necessary, one of the values (n or m) is adjusted and another is recalculated until a convenient combination is achieved.

Equation 2:

Equation 3:

• Mass of primary increment click to readmore

The mass of each primary increment taken by a cross-stream sampler at the discharge from the conveyor belt can be calculated using Equation 4 where:

• C is the flow rate [t/h] on the conveyor belt;
• b is the cutter aperture width [mm] (b should be ≥ 3 times the nominal top size of the sampled material);
• VC is cutter speed [m/s].

Equation 4:

For a cross-belt (hammer) sampler, the mass of primary increment can be calculated using Equation 5 where:

• C is the flow rate [t/h] on the conveyor belt;
• b is the cutter aperture width [mm] (b should be ≥ 3 times the nominal top size of the sampled material);
• VB is the belt speed [m/s].

Equation 5:

During the design of the sampling system, increment masses that are close to those expected to be taken by the system can be used. After implementation of the sampling scheme, the precision of the result can be estimated and adjusted by increasing or decreasing the number of increments in the sample, keeping the same increment mass.

• Sample division and minimum mass of sample click to readmore

Sample Division

To obtain convenient sample masses along the partway from lot to analytical aliquot, the sample is often divided into a number of equal smaller sub-samples, and a residual which is returned to the conveyor.

In order to facilitate a required division while retaining the representative nature of the sample, it may be necessary to crush the material. For this reason, a complete system for extraction of representative samples consists of multistage sampling, particle size reduction and division (sub-sampling) equipment. It is also sometimes beneficial to mix the resulting sub-samples thoroughly after each of these operations, to achieve even higher precision.

Minimum Mass of Sample

For most parameters, the precision of the result is limited by the ability of the sample to represent all the particle sizes in the material being sampled. There is a minimum mass of sample, dependent on the maximum particle size of the material, the type of analysis, the precision required for the parameter concerned and the relationship of that parameter to particle size. Such a relationship applies at all stages of preparation. The attainment of this mass will not, by itself, guarantee the required precision. This is also dependent on the number of increments taken to compound the sample and their variability.

Table 2: Minimum mass of sample (example: coal)

• Sampling definitions click to readmore

Bias (or sampling bias):
A systematic error between the average analytical sampling result and the true lot concentration i.e. accuracy which originates from inaccurate (biased) sampling equipment and/or sampling processes which leads to results that on average are higher or lower than the true value. Elimination of the sampling bias is the first and key requirement to ensure that any sampling process is correct.

Cut:
An increment extracted by a sampler.

Composite (Gross) Sample:
A material sample consisting of all the primary increments taken from a sub-lot.

Division:
A sub-sampling process, in which the sample is divided into a number of smaller portions, with equal properties.

Lot:
The complete entity of original material targeted for sampling e.g. industrial batch, ship’s cargo, truck load etc. The lot refers both to the physical, the geometrical form and size as well as the characteristics of the material being subject to sampling and specifically its heterogeneity.

Nominal top size:
The smallest sieve opening on which not more than 5% of the sample is retained.

Precision:
Expressed in % and within 95% confidence level.

Primary Increment:
The amount of material which the primary sampling tool extracts from a material stream, or a stationary lot, in one cut.

Sub-lot:
Equally sized part of a lot, which properties are to be determined.

Sample:
The quantity of material consisting of all the increments taken from a lot/sub-lot. A representative sample retains the properties of the lot.

Specimen:
An extracted mass that is not a result of a representative sampling process. Specimens are not worth analyzing as they cannot give reliable representative information of the lot.

## Contact information.

Jan Flemming Jørgensen

Sales Director

Bjarke Pålsson

Co-CEO and Owner

Torben Ekvall

Co-CEO and Owner

## Distributors and Agents.

China
Beijing Trontech Scientific Co.
Li Xueyan
Room 1012, 9th floor, site 5, No. 6, FuTong East Street, Chaoyang District, 100102 Beijing, P.R. China
Website: www.tron-tech.cn
China
Tianjin Inventive Technologies
Jack Wei
Rm 917, Bldg F , Hi-tech Information Plaza, No. 8, Huatian Rd, Huayuan Industrial Park, Nankai District, Tianjin, China.
Czech Republic
ECM ECO MONITORING
Jiří Komárek
Dobrá 240, 739 51 Dobrá, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
ORGREZ
Vojtěch Vavřička
Hudcova 321/76, 612 00 Brno – Medlánky, Czech republic
Website: orgrez.cz
Finland
Nordagent OY
Mika Rantanen
Rantatie 31, 28450 Vanha-Ulvila
Website: nordagent.com
France
Helle Gjersoe Brouzes
Helle Gjersoe Brouzes
405 Rue Joliot Curie, FR-60410 Saintines, France
Hungary
ECM ECO Monitoring Kft.
Ferenc Czeglédy
Fehérvári út 168-178. B. lph. fszt. 16-17., 1116 Budapest, Hungary
India
TECHMARK Engineers & Consultants
Rajeev Verma
2/5, Gupta Market , Lajpat Nagar- IV, New Delhi -110024 , INDIA
Indonesia
Rocky H.F Rumondor
Japos Graha Lestari Blok B3 No.14, Jurangmangu Barat - Pondok Aren
Kazakhstan
DistriTech
Alexey Gainutdinov
Office 13, 17/1, Al-Farabi av., business center “Nurly Tau”, 050059, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Norway
Retsch Norge AS
Anders Pihl
Trosseveien 15, 6963 Dale i Sunnfjord, Norge
Website: www.retsch.no/
Poland
GRC
Boguslaw Zwolinski
Porajowska 6,  54-107 Wrocław, Poland
Website: grc.pl/
Romania
Techno Instruments
Sebastian Codescu
Laboratorului Street, no. 31B, Ploiesti-100301, RO
Russia
Impex Industry LLC
Victor Sviridov
197101, Saint-Petersburg, Pevcheskii per 12A, of 607
Website: mwdk.ru/
Russia
Enprotech
Maltsev Kirill
199406, Saint-Petersburg, Rm.5-N, 43, Gavanskaya St. Russia
Russia
TestSystems
Pavel Udovitsky
129343, Moscow, Proyezd Serebryakova 14, bld 15, Business center Silver Stone
Website: http://tstm.ru/
Russia
Gornye Machiny
Alina Kulikova
660062, Krasnoyarsk , Visotnaya Str., 2, Bld. 1, office 301
Slovakia
EMC ECO Monitoring
Branislav Jurák
Nevädzová 5, 821  01  Bratislava
South Africa
O.E.N Enterprises pty ltd
Olivedale Office Park. Paracon House. 35 Lima Street. Olivedale, Gauteng, South Africa
Website: oen.co.za
Sweden
ZW Nordic
Urban Wretlinge
Koltrastvägen 8, Sollentuna, Sweden
Website: www.zwnordic.se
Taiwan
Chyuan Yu Ent. Co. Ltd
Joe Wang
12F, No.496 Jiue-Min Rd. San-Min Dist., Kaohsiung City, 807 Taiwan, R.O.C
Turkey
Yünel Elektromekanik Ltd.
Ufuk Yunel
Cankiri Karayolu 26. Km. 06750 Ankara, Tyrkiet
Website: www.yunel.com/
Ukraine
ECM UKRAINE LLC
Oleksandr Khodyrev
Frunze str., 86, 04080 Kiev, Ukraine
Vietnam
CIMES
Tuan Mai
42 Đại Đồng, Thanh Trì, Hoàng Mai, Hà Nội, Vietnam
Website: http://cimes.vn/

## Aftersales & Services.

### Aftersales Process

As an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), we consider it as our duty to make spare parts and various field services available to all our customers to guarantee you the highest possible machine availability. M&W JAWO Sampling strives to keep an updated As Built record of all delivered equipment, being able to identify parts and make these available in the shortest possible delivery time.

### Field Service

M&W JAWO Sampling offers several types of field services:

• Electrical- and Mechanical installation of delivered equipment
• Installation supervision
• Commissioning
• Commissioning supervision
• Training/ workshops
• Preventive repair
• Maintenance of equipment and maintenance supervision
• System preparation for verification test
• Pre-bias and bias tests

The requested type of field service is performed by our own staff and can be provided on a case by case basis – or as a part of a Service Contract with periodic system checks.

### Spare parts

For each delivered machine/instrument or complete system a recommended list of spare- and wear parts is shown in the O&M manual. Each part is identifiable with a unique part # and can be manufactured within short time in our own work shops, unless it is already kept on stock. M&W JAWO Sampling categorises our spare- and wear parts into recommended stock for wear, stock for safety and stock as strategic spares. For resupply of parts which may not be listed in the O&M manual, our engineers are available for consultation and identification as necessary.

## Mark & Wedell business units.

##### JAWO SAMPLING

M&W JAWO Sampling offers a full range of automated and customized machines, instruments and complete systems for representative sampling of bulk... material, powder, dust particles and ash for a wide variety of sectors from mining and power plants to pharma.

950 +

Projects

3,000 +

Machines / instruments sold

900 +

Customers served

##### Big science

M&W Big Science serves industrial R&D departments, large scientific research facilities and academic test centers with state of the art current leads... and feed-throughs.

15 +

Projects

10 +

Customers served

##### Engineering

M&W Engineering designs and manufactures machines, prototypes and parts to the highest standards as a trusted partner for a wide variety of industries... such as pharma, healthcare, food and oil & gas.

10,000 +

Projects / Orders

150 +

Customers served

Oldenvej 5, 3490 Kvistgaard, Denmark
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