Repræsentativ prøveudtagning for minedrift.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiseret og repræsentativt prøveudtagningsudstyr og komplette løsninger giver minedriftskunder de nødvendige data til deres efterforsknings- og minedriftsprocesser for at beslutte, hvor og hvordan de skal mine for at få mest muligt ud af forekomsten…
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning for metalraffinering og mineralforarbejdning.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder inden for metalraffinering og mineralforarbejdning repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse…
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning og instrumenter til kraftværker.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning ekstraktionsprøvetagere, online-instrumenter og brændstofprøvetagningsløsninger til kraft- og varmeværker giver kunderne vigtige realtidsdata ved…
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning for cement og kalksten.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder i cement- og kalkstensindustrien repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse…
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning for gødning.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder i gødningsindustrien repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse…
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning for olie og gas.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder inden for olie og gas repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse…
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiseret og repræsentativt prøveudtagningsudstyr og komplette løsninger giver minekunder de nødvendige data til deres efterforsknings- og minedriftsprocesser for at beslutte, hvor og hvordan de skal mine for at få mest muligt ud af forekomsten.
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning til yderligere analyse sikrer, at du undgår:
- Lavere produktkvalitet end forventet
- Får ikke betalt for den rigtige malmkvalitet
- Problemer med produktprognoser
- Ineffektive processer som følge af uventede materialeegenskaber
- Overdreven brug af malm af høj kvalitet og bedre kontrol over minens levetid
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning har siden 1980’erne leveret automatiserede prøvetagningsløsninger til mineindustrien til en række af minekunder som Glencore, LKAB, AngloGold Ashanti, Severstal, Baffinland, Boliden og Rio Tinto til materialer som f.eks. jernmalm, kobber, kobberkoncentrat, guld, titanium, kul, bauxit, potaske og nikkel, inklusive den største automatiserede prøvetagningsløsning, der nogensinde er installeret i Europa for jernmalm.
Metalraffinering og mineralforarbejdning
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder inden for metalraffinering og mineralforarbejdning repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse.
Indhentning af repræsentative prøver af det samlede parti er afgørende, da der ellers ikke er nogen mening i at have foretaget betydelige investeringer i laboratorieudstyr og analytiske kompetencer.
Ud fra nøjagtige og præcise data for det samlede parti er kunder inden for mineralforarbejdning og metalraffinering i stand til at:
- Bekræft, om de modtager eller sælger produkter, der opfylder kontraktkravene
- Overvåge og optimere produktions- og kvalitetskontrolprocessen
- Forbedre blande- og blandingsoperationer for at opnå bedre slutprodukter
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning har siden 1980’erne leveret automatiserede prøvetagningsløsninger til metalraffinerings- og mineralforarbejdningsindustrien til en lang række kunder som Norsk Hydro, Arcelor Mittal, SSAB, Ma’aden, Outokumpu, Voest Alpine, Umicore, Boliden, Glencore Recycling , Posco og Alcoa for materialer som f.eks. jern, stål, aluminium, ferrosilicium, zink, malm, kobber, kobberkoncentrat, guld, nikkel og ædelmetaller fra genanvendelige materialer.
Kraft- og Varmeværker
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning ekstraktionsprøvetagere, onlineinstrumenter og brændstofprøvetagningsløsninger til kraft- og varmeværker giver kunderne vigtige realtidsdata ved at:
- Måling af brændstofmasseflowet, så operatøren kan optimere forbrændingsprocessen
- Indhentning af isokinetiske og repræsentative brændstofstøvprøver til partikelstørrelsesanalyse til klassificeringsoptimering, mølletilstandsbestemmelse og brændselsegenskaber
- Tilbyder online- og realtidsmåling af uforbrændt kulstofniveauer (UBC) i aske for bedre forbrænding, reduceret brændstofforbrug og miljøomkostninger
- Verifikation af, at modtaget brændsel (kul eller biomasse) opfylder kontraktkravene (f.eks. for fugt, askeindhold og partikelstørrelsesfordeling)
- Overvågning og optimering af forbrændingseffektiviteten generelt
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning har siden 1980’erne opfundet adskillige banebrydende ekstraktionsprøvetagere og online-instrumenter til el- og varmesektoren såsom Pulverized Fuel Sampler (rotoprobe) til isokinetisk prøvetagning samt verdens første online instrument til måling af uforbrændt kulstofniveauer i flyveaske.
Mere end 200+ kraftværker i 5 kontinenter har installeret M&W JAWO prøveudtagningsudstyr til kul, forskellige slags biomasse og aske.
Utilities omfatter Uniper, Drax, Ørsted, Fortum, Alliant, BHEL, NTPC, EdF, Enel, Engie og Iberdrola.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder i cement- og kalkstensindustrien repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse.
Kunder bruger vores udstyr til prøveudtagning af kalksten, pulver, klinker, slagger og færdig cement. Typiske prøveudtagningsfokusområder omfatter: Rå og færdige produkter, ved loadout og depotoverførsel.
Repræsentativ prøveudtagning til yderligere analyse giver dig mulighed for at:
- Få kalksten med de egenskaber, du forventer i form af renhed (CaCO3 og karbonater), uønskede urenheder (K2O og MgO), kornstørrelse, reaktivitet efter sintring (hurtig eller langsom) og potentiale for hård forbrænding.
- Find den rigtige sammenhæng mellem egenskaber af kalksten, kalcineringsparametre og slutegenskaber af hydreret kalk
- Bestemmelse af styrken af klumpkalk
- Til cement og beton til bestemmelse af slibeevne (støvniveauer), uønskede tilsætningsstoffer (f.eks. alkaliske forbindelser, krom, krystallinsk silica), vand/cement-forhold osv.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning har leveret prøvetagningsløsninger til mere end 350+ forskellige projekter i cement-, cementklinker- og kalkstensindustrien siden midten af 1980’erne. Kunder har købt alt fra komplette prøveudtagnings- og klargøringsanlæg, on-stream-systemer samt individuelle prøveudtagningsinstrumenter såsom skruetransportører, skruetransportører med blandetanke og luftslidsprøvetagere samt prøveudtagningsudstyr til materialehåndtering som knusere, transportører osv.
Kunderne omfatter LafargeHolcim, Heidelberg Cement, Cemengal, Cemex, Boral, Siam Cement, Aalborg Portland og FLS.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder i gødningsindustrien repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse.
Ud fra nøjagtige og præcise data for det samlede parti er kunder i gødningsindustrien i stand til at:
- Kontroller, om de modtager eller sælger produkter, der opfylder kontraktkrav med hensyn til kvalitet, homogenitet og partikelstørrelse
- Overvåge og optimere produktions- og kvalitetskontrolprocessen
- Forbedre blande- og blandingsoperationer for at opnå bedre slutprodukter
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning har siden 1990’erne leveret automatiserede prøveudtagningsløsninger til gødningsindustrien til virksomheder som K+S Kali, K+S Potash Canada, Yara, Norsk Hydro, OCP, El-Nasr Co. For Intermediate Chemicals og Kemira for kaliumchlorid, urinstof, fosfatgødning og andre mineralske gødninger fra magnesium og svovl.
Olie & Gas
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning automatiserede og repræsentative prøveudtagningsmaskiner, udstyr og komplette løsninger giver kunder inden for olie og gas repræsentative og ensartede prøver til kvalitetsanalyse.
Kunder bruger vores løsninger til at bestemme de fysiske egenskaber og kemiske bestanddele for primære og sekundære produkter såsom olieskifer, grøn pet koks, pelletiseret svovl.
Olie- og gaskunder/raffinaderier, der har købt vores automatiserede prøveudtagningssystemer, omfatter Petrobas, Gazprom Neft og Saudio Aramco.
Ydermere betjener Mark & Wedell en række kunder i olie- og gassektoren med Annulus Pressure Relief System, der muliggør sikker og enkel stimulering af olie- og gasbrønde op til 10.000 psi baseret på let udskiftelig burst disc-teknologi.
Kunderne omfatter Aker BP, Shell, BP, Mærsk Oil & Gas (nu Total), Itacha Energy og Hess samt olieserviceselskaber som Schlumberger og Stimwell Oil Services.
Vi introducerer M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning .
Prøveudtagning Gjordt Enkel
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning tilbyder kunderne et komplet udvalg af automatiserede og tilpassede maskiner, instrumenter og komplette systemer til repræsentativ prøveudtagning af bulkmateriale, pulver og støvpartikler til en bred vifte af industrier.
Derudover får du adgang til vores 35+ års erfaring gennem dialog med vores stikprøve af uddannede medarbejdere.
Indhentning af repræsentative prøver af det samlede parti inden analyse er altafgørende – ellers nytter det ikke meget at have foretaget betydelige investeringer i laboratorieudstyr og analytiske kompetencer.
Hvad er det for dig?
Ved at betjene vores automatiserede prøvetagningsløsninger får du pålidelig viden om egenskaberne af det materiale, du køber, sælger eller producerer, hvilket gør dig i stand til at:
- Beregn det korrekte beløb eller den korrekte værdi for hvert parti materiale, du modtager eller leverer – for derved at reducere risikoen for enten overbetaling eller undersalg
- Bekræft, at du modtager eller sælger produkter, der opfylder kontraktkravene
- Overvåg og optimer din produktions- og kvalitetskontrolproces
- Forbedre dine blande- og blandingsoperationer for at opnå bedre slutprodukter
- Estimer typen og mængden af biprodukter fra dine forarbejdede eller fremstillede partier
- Dokumenter miljøpåvirkningen og/eller forureningen fra din produktion
- For kunder, hvor større eller dyre mængder materiale købes eller sælges, vil den økonomiske virkning af at sikre repræsentative og konsistente prøver være betydelig.
- Ved at købe den rigtige prøvetagningsløsning vil du sandsynligvis spare mange penge.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning Brochure – Russian version (coming soon)
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagning Brochure – Dansk version (kommer snart)
Du vil være sikret prøveudtagningsløsninger, der producerer konsistente prøver til din kvalitetsanalyse – nøjagtigt og præcist repræsenterer det samlede parti, hvorfra det blev indsamlet.
Som et resultat får du upartiske og reproducerbare prøver til internationale råvarer såsom aluminium, aske, bauxit, biomasse, byggematerialer, calcium, cement og cementklinker, kul, koks, kobberkoncentrat, chromitmalm, elektroskrot, gødning, korn, granulater , jernmalm/sinter/pellets, guld, industripulver, brunkul, kalksten, tungt mineralsand, kvarts, platin, potteaske, stensalt, silicium og faste kemikalier.
M&W JAWO Sampling er en af de globale pionerer inden for udvikling og produktion af automatiseret prøveudtagningsudstyr, instrumenter og hele systemløsninger siden 1982.
I 1999 købte Mark & Wedell FLS JAWO Handling fra FLSmidth og fortsatte med at udvikle en række specifikke prøveudtagningsprodukter. I 2019 integrerede Mark & Wedell “M&W Asketeknik” (ekstraktionsprøvetagere og instrumenter primært til el- og varmeindustrien) i M&W JAWO Sampling forretningsenheden.
M&W JAWO Prøveudtagningsudstyr og prøveudtagningssystemer fungerer i overensstemmelse med godkendte internationale materialestandarder såsom ISO, ASME, GOST, EN samt DS3077 (2013).
Alt prøveudtagningsudstyr og -løsninger sigter mod at overholde principperne i Theory of Sampling (TOS) og giver dig pålidelig viden om materialeegenskaberne for din prøve, såsom:
- Content grade
- Moisture content
- Mineral proportions
- Particle Size Distribution
Who else bought?
M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied more than 3,000 automated sampling solutions to more than 950 projects in 85+ countries within the mining, mineral processing & metals refining, oil & gas, power and heat generation, cement, fertilizer, recycling and waste handling, building materials, food and pharma sectors.
950+ projects in 85+ countries around the world.
Selected Project References.
LKAB Narvik - Europe's largest sampling system installed - iron pellets & fines - In progress
M&W JAWO Sampling is currently delivering the largest automated sampling systems ever installed in Europe for LKABs two shiploaders in Narvik, Norway.
The combined solution consists of more than 75+ individual machines and instruments of which M&W JAWO has developed and produced +95%. The sampling solution is the fourth sampling system produced and installed by M&W JAWO for LKAB.
Recycling: 2021 sampling of received and processed recycled materials
In 2021 M&W JAWO Sampling has delivered several solutions to the fast-growing recycling industry including a full sampling solution for recycled wood chips as well as Rotary Tube Dividers incl. control panels for the recycling of precious metals.
For example a specifically engineered Rotary Tube Divider for very fine and light material (100% < 2 mm ; 80-99% < 850µm; 4-16% < 75µm) which in addition is very sharp and heterogeneous.
Mining: 2021 sampling equipment sales for mined materials booming
The 2021 mining boom has led M&W JAWO Sampling to engineer and manufacture sampling solutions for a variety of projects in countries such as Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Norway.
Two factors have driven the 2021 growth in sales of M&W JAWO Sampling products for the mining industry:
1: A general strong 2021 growth of 12.4% in the global mining market (rising commodity prices)
2: Increasing focus – as mined commodities are getting scarcer – to get more precise and representative data about what is mined and/or processed.
Biomass: Continuous 2021 conversions of fossile fuels to CO2 friendlier biomass – M&W JAWO Sampling solutions in demand
In 2021 M&W JAWO Sampling continued building on its lead position as the worlds most experienced provider of sampling solutions for the biomass industry.
Both what regards large sampling solutions for ascertaining the moisture content and particle size distribution of received biomass as well as specifically engineered instruments for the measurement of fuel velocity and particle size distribution in fuel pipes.
Cement: Strong growth in M&W JAWO sampling equipment sales to the global market in 2021
Due to strong global growth in the cement market (average expected growth of 5.1% in 2021-2028) M&W JAWO Sampling has in 2021 delivered sampling solutions to a high number of customers around the world including in the US, Vietnam, Indonesia and Finland.
For example screw samplers with mixing tanks (SMX) incl. local control panels extracting and mixing relatively standard material, customized sampling solutions for very fine powders and Cross Belt Samplers for sampling and veryfying properties of commodity inflows.
Hybrit Pilot Plant Luleå - Automated sampling solution for fossil free production - Steel - 2020
M&W JAWO Sampling constructed a complete automated sampling system for the HYBRIT pilot plant in Luleå for fossil free steel production in addition to a customized vezin sampler with the ability of extracting material from a chute at very high temperatures.
HYBRIT – short for Hydrogen Breakthrough Ironmaking Technology – is a joint venture between the three Swedish companies: SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall, aiming to replace coking coal with hydrogen from electrolysis of water in the steelmaking process.
Elsinore Heat & Power Plant (HØK) - Automated Train & Truck Sampling System for wood chips - 2020
The Automated Truck & Train Sampling System (ATTSS) was installed as part of HØKs wish to replace a gas-fired boiler with wood chips from sustainable sources saving 80,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually.
The ATTSS was a complete turn-key delivery and took less than one year to complete.
It takes 4,700 individual and representative samples per annum from both front and back end of truck.
1% error in the moisture calculation means an economic loss of Euro/USD 150,000 per year.
Akbaky/Aktogay mines - Gold - 2020
Altynalmas is currently operating several mines at three different sites: Akbakai, Aktogai and Aksu. M&W JAWO Sampling has developed and supplied a customized sampling system for the Akbakai gold recovery plant.
The scope comprised design and supply of a novel vertical primary sampler and a sampling preparation system consisting of crusher, divider, conveyors and a multi compartment magazine for final samples.
Aktobe Ferroalloys Plant - Quartzite, Anthracite, Bauxite and Coke – 2020
M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied two cross belt samplers to Aktobe Ferroalloys Plant (TNC Kazchrome) for sampling of coke, anthracite, bauxite and quartzite.
This project is part of a large-scale production upgrade at the plant’s unique smelting shop no. 4.
Global Pharmaceutical Company – Customized Vezin Sampler – Medicinal powder – 2020
M&W JAWO Sampling was requested by a global pharmaceutical company to design and manufacture a specially made Vezin sampler for collecting representative samples of very fine medicinal powder for laboratory purposes. Everything was engineered and manufactured in-house
The solution should handle various quantities (lot sizes) and particle sizes (20-2000 microns).Furthermore, the electrical design should enable the sampler to collect representative samples with a cut frequency and in quantities determined by the operator from the LCP or remotely from the DCS.
Duqm Refinery - EPC2 - Green Pet Coke - 2020
M&W JAWO Sampling was asked by PHB Weserhütte in Spain (part of the TSK group) to engineer and manufacture a complete automated sampling solution for green pet coke on behalf of the Petrofac/Samsung JV in Duqm Oman.
This was the fifth project concluded between PHB Weserhütte and M&W JAWO Sampling since 2013 – ranging from sampling of bauxite in Saudi Arabia, a coal fired power plant in Turkey, pelletized sulfur in Saudi Arabia and coal in Finland (at -40 C and ATEX zone 21).
Widnes Biomass Combined Heat & Power Plant – Waste Wood - 2020
M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied two cross stream samplers to Widnes Biomass Combined Heat and Power Plant (BWSC) for sampling of wood chips from waste wood.
Boliden Harjavalta - Gold - 2020
Boliden Harjavalta is one out of five Boliden smelters located in south west Finland, close to the port on the Baltic Sea. M&W JAWO Sampling supplied the Harjavalta smelter with a complete automatic sampling system for gold.
M&W JAWO Sampling has been supplying the Boliden Group with 6 automated sampling systems for materials such as copper concentrate and copper, anode slurry, iron sand and gold.
AMV4 - The world's largest fully automated sampling system for wood chips - 2019
M&W JAWO Sampling delivered the world’s largest fully automated sampling system for wood chips for the newly built AMV4 at Amager Power Plant – a 500 MW biomass CFB unit replacing unit 3 (coal fired).
The sampling system includes two 16 meter tall bucket elevators for reject material, 2 cross belt samplers, 4 screw conveyors, dividers, sample collectors with splitters and ancillary instruments.
Semirara Island - Coal - 2019
For more than 10 years M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied the Semirara Mining & Power Corporation with automated sampling solutions.
M&W JAWO has delivered four complete sampling systems for their coal mining operations in 2009, 2011 and two in 2016 as well as individual sampling instruments. Our latest delivery was in 2019.
Voestalpine Texas - Automated sampling system (25+ sampling units) - Iron Pellets - 2019
M&W JAWO Sampling is delivering a complete automated sampling system comprising more than 25 different sampling units to Voestalpine Texas for representative sampling of received iron pellets. The iron pellets are used as raw materials in the manufacturing of HBI (hot briquetted iron).
Siniat - Cross Belt Sweeper for removal of tramp material - Concrete Lumps - 2019
M&W JAWO Sampling delivered a Cross Belt Sweeper to Siniat in Italy for removal of tramp material such as concrete lumps, iron pieces etc. from the conveyor belt.
The Cross Belt Sweeper is connected to a tramp material detector upstream the belt conveyor and pushes (sweeps) the tramp material off the belt as soon it enters the sweeper housing. A connected receiving chamber guides the tramp material to a lower located discharge point.
Asnæs Power Station - Automated Train & Truck Sampling System for wood chips - 2019
The Automated Truck & Train Sampling System (ATTSS) was installed due to Ørsted’s wish to replace power and heat production from coal with wood chips from sustainable sources.
The ATTSS was a complete turn-key delivery and took less than 1 1/2 year to complete.
REC Solar - Herøya - Silicon - 2019
After having acquired an automated sampling system from M&W JAWO Sampling in 2005 REC Solar needed a new system for their latest investment in the recycling process of silicon.
M&W JAWO Sampling delivered a customized and updated solution for REC Solars new production line in 2019.
Turow Power Plant - 32 screw samplers - Coal - 2019
For the new 450MW lignite fired utility unit at Turow, it was decided to extract an ash sample from the electrostatic precipitator. To obtain a final sample that represents the entire precipitator, it was decided to extract a sample from each of the 30 ESP hoppers and the two Air Pre-Heater hoppers.
The hoppers are constantly kept empty during operation and M&W JAWO Sampling proposed to design a screw sampler with material intake in the top and with minimal fabrication tolerances to collect even the smallest particles.
Hindustan Platinum - Representative division of recyclables - Platinum - 2019
Established in 1961, Hindustan Platinum is India’s leading manufacturer and refiner of precious metal products such as platinum alloy catalyst gauzes, palladium alloy catchment gauzes and silver gauzes.
In 2019 M&W JAWO Sampling delivered a rotary tube divider for the separation of samples as part of the process monitoring control. M&W JAWO Sampling delivered the first sampling equipment to Hindustan Platinum already in 2005.
Studstrupværket - On-line measurement of unburned carbon - Biomass - 2019
Ørsted wanted to receive real-time and on-line measurements of the fluctuations of the level of UBC (unburnt carbon) in fly ash subject to variances in fuel input and changes in the combustion process at its Studstrup Power Plant. This information would enable Ørsted to further optimize the efficiency of the power plant as well as its fuel mix.
Turow Power Plant - Customised extraction screw connected to storage silo - Coal - 2019
In 2019 Eurosilo was supplying the Turow power plant with a customized storage silo. With desulphurization material flowing with +100t/hr through a very short vertical chute on top of the storage silo, there was a need to extract just a few kilos of material per day.
M&W JAWO Sampling produced a customised extraction screw with material inlet in the top and with a 180 degree rotating outer pipe of wear resistant material.
Avedøre Power Plant - Particle Sampler - Biomass - 2018
In 2018 Ørsted wanted to have automatic samples of fly ash from the transport pipes before reaching the silo for laboratory purposes. M&W JAWO Sampling produced and installed the particle sampler (PS) as a result. A similar device was successfully installed at one of the units in 2015.
The particle sampler is an automatic sampling device, used for collecting physical dust samples from transport pipes, where the media is conveyed by pneumatic transport. The instrument is compatible with all kinds of dust and small-sized materials for all industries.
Holcim Narogong and Tuban - Screw sampler mixing tanks (SMX) - Cement - 2018
In 2018 M&W supplied two of PT Semen Indonesia’s (formerly owned by LafargeHolcim) cement plants in Indonesia, the Narogong and the Tuban Plant, with SMX sample extractors (screw sampler mixing tanks). PT Semen Indonesia who now owns Holcim, is the largest cement producer in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
Umicore Brazil - Guarulhos - Recycling - Precious Metals - 2018
M&W JAWO Sampling has supplied several samplers to Umicore in Brazil and around the world. Umicore Brazil manufactures a wide range of products, from car catalysts to recycling of electronics and metals.
A M&W JAWO Rotary Tube Divider – performing a representative division – is used in Umicore’s electro scrap handling facility.
PT Borneo Indobara Coalmine - Coal - 2018
M&W Supplied two sampling systems with a cross belt sampler design by reference to ASME standards, to PT. Borneo Indobara Coalmine in 2018. The mine has a permit for operations until 2036 and is currently being developed to be one of the largest mines in Indonesia.
Baffinland Iron Mine - Iron - 2018
M&W JAWO Sampling supplied the automated sampling system as part of new materials handling system (processing, storage and transport of iron ore) delivered by ThyssenKrupp Canada with the aim of tripling the material handling capacity to 12 million tons of iron ore per year.
Freeport Chemical Plant - Texas - Polymer - 2018
M&W JAWO Sampling supplied five special designed screw samplers for the filling stations for process control of super absorbent polymer to BASF Chemical Division’s plants in Freeport, Texas, USA. The Freeport site consists of 25 plants at which BASF manufactures e.g. acrylic monomers, polymers, caprolactam, dispersions and pigments.
JAWO Sampling Solutions and Product Overview.
M&W JAWO Sampling is building the bridge between the Theory Of Sampling (TOS) and specific sampling products or a complete multi-stage sampling system for any customer who requires fully automated and high-quality representative sampling-solution.
Our multi-stage sampling systems consists of several individual customized products which are engineered, constructed and positioned together. This ensures a solution which meets international standards or even exceed them.
Sampling made simple for 40 years.
Theory of sampling
Why representative sampling?
Why representative sampling?
Obtaining representative samples of the total lot before analysis is crucial – otherwise there is little point in having made significant investments in laboratory equipment and analytical competences.
Representative samples are critical for correct decision making based on analytical data for industry, trade, technology, science and regulators. However, there is a complex way from heterogeneous materials in lots such as truck loads, railroad cars, shiploads, stockpiles and on conveyor belts (in the kg-ton range) to the very small aliquot (in g-µg range), which is the only material that is actually analysed.
Exactly how to get a documented representative analytical result across mass-reduction of up to six orders of magnitude is far from a direct materials’ handling issue. There are a number of specific principles and rules behind representativity as part of the Theory of Sampling (TOS).
The concept of TOS was originally developed by Pierre Gy who identified eight sampling errors which represent everything that can go wrong in sampling, sub-sampling (sample mass reduction), sample preparation and sample presentation—due to heterogeneity and/or inferior sampling equipment design and performance.
During his 25 year career (1950-75) Pierre Gy worked out how to avoid committing such errors in the design, manufacture, maintenance and operation of sampling equipment and showed how their adverse impact on the total accumulated uncertainty could be reduced as much as possible when sampling in practice. He received two PhDs (in mineral processing and statistics) in the process. Read more about TOS in the article by R.C.A. Minnitt and Kim H. Esbensen.
The purpose of sampling is therefore to produce a reliable small mass which is representative of the total mass of material from which it was collected i.e. to obtain a sample which accurately and precisely represents the total mass or lot. This primary sample is very often subject to further sub-sampling and sample preparation procedures, which ultimately produces an aliquot suitable for either laboratory analysis or physical testing. The type of testing or analysis is dependent on which characteristics are required for technological and industrial decision making. Regardless, the primary sampling is critical for the ultimate quality of the analytical results.
Figure 1. below shows the key results from Replication Experiments made at Elkem Metal, Canada, which showed that 35% of the total sampling variance (where mistakes can occur throughout the full sampling process) occured during the phase of primary sampling and 50% during the crushing phases i.e. 85% of the total sampling variance occurred before pulverization and laboratory analysis.
In other words: it is of extreme importance that you are in control of your primary and secondary sampling process before final analyzis. Otherwise you draw (wrong) conclusions from the non-representative samples.
Figure 1. Replication Experiment at Elkem Metal – Canada.
A specific sampling process can either be representative – or not. If a sampling process is not representative, the result is only extracted and undefined, mass-reduced lumps of material which do not represent the original lot; these are called “specimens”.
However, specimens are not worth analyzing, as they will not give valid information about the composition and physical characteristics of the lot. Only representative analytical aliquots can reduce the combined sampling-and-analysis errors to a desired minimum.
Drawing the (wrong) conclusions from non-representative samples can have major negative production control and financial consequences when you buy or sell materials.
And you might as well save the costs of laboratory hardware and analysts: Garbage In = Garbage Out.
Sampling must be both accurate (unbiased) and precise (reproducible) at all stages throughout the sampling process.
A representative sampling process is critically dependent upon three factors:
1: Unbiased and precise sampling equipment – demand clear and understandable documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposal to help.
2: TOS-informed sampling process design, installation and operation. Demand relevant documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposal to help.
3: Process staff & supervisors must possess a minimum of TOS-competence. If this does not exist in-house, request training and documentation from your supplier. M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.
 For background: “Introduction to the Theory and practice of sampling” by Kim H. Esbensen (IMPublicationsOpen 2020)
 “Pierre Gy (1924–2015): the key concept of sampling errors” (Spectroscopy Europe/Asia 2018)
 “Pierre Gy’s development of the Theory of Sampling: a retrospective summary with a didactic tutorial on quantitative sampling of one-dimensional lots” by R.C.A. Minnitt and Kim H. Esbensen, TOS Forum 7.
 “The Replication Myth 1” by Kim H. Esbensen et al, NIR News
 “The Replication Myth 2: Quantifying empirical sampling plus analysis variability” by Kim H. Esbensen et al, NIR News
How to do sampling?
Representative sampling must be both accurate (unbiased) and precise (reproducible). In order to be representative, a specific sampling process shall only be using equipment that is designed to eliminate (or reduce maximally) sampling bias and which simultaneously increases sampling precision as much as possible. Here is the short explanation why:
All material sampling targets (lots) are heterogeneous, it is only a matter of degree. This means that different samples, even though extracted by the exact same protocol, will never be identical, which manifests itself as a basic, non-vanishing sampling variability. Heterogeneity is one of two major influential factors behind sampling variability (inaccuracy). The sampling process itself will also result in sampling error effects that add to the total sampling uncertainty. All sampling must therefore aim for maximum Total Sampling Error (TSE) reduction. In order to do this effectively, economically and with confidence, there are sampling equipment and process design principles which must be acknowledged and followed. These rules are codified in the Theory of Sampling (TOS).
M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.
For homogeneous materials, there is no reason to worry about sampling – because any sample will be an exact representative sample of the lot (big/small).
However, ALL materials – at all scales – visible, or not – are heterogeneous.
Representative sampling is not as simple as buying a specific sampling tool (equipment) with which to sample any of the world’s materials. This will be futile. Despite many suppliers’ claim, there does not exist a “universal sampler” that will work for all materials and under all conditions because technological and industrial materials have very different compositional heterogeneities and other characteristics e.g. internal differences with respect to grain sizes , moisture, grain stickiness. But there exist professional solutions: most standard sampling equipment can be used in informed, TOS-compliant ways that can be made to work towards a state of “fit-for-purpose” representativity. This approach is called composite sampling.
Representative sampling is about mastering the necessary and sufficient TOS principles with which to make rational choices regarding the appropriate type of sampling tool and sampling protocol for a specific task, for a specific material, under customer-specific conditions. It takes professional competence and relevant experience to get all this right.
M&W JAWO Sampling is at your disposition to help.
Method, frequency and accuracy
The method and frequency by which samples are collected and the resulting sampling accuracy, i.e. how closely collected samples represent the true characteristics of the target lot, depend on the nature of the material, particularly its compositional and distributional heterogeneity.
A homogeneous material would only require collection of a single sample in order to determine its characteristics accurately, whereas all heterogeneous materials with irregular particle size distribution and/or irregular constituent compositions, will require extraction of a sufficient number of small increments, which when combined into a composite sample, will be able to represent the total lot with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Increments must be collected from all spatial locations in the lot, with the number required critically depending on the material heterogeneity. TOS outlines the specific requirements that must be matched in order to be able to guarantee a specific threshold for fit-for-purpose heterogeneity.
For this to be possible it is of fundamental importance that all increments in the lot have the same probability of being included in the final sample. This is the “golden rule” of sampling, called the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP). To achieve this most effectively, wherever it is possible, it is desirable to sample the lot while it is in a dynamic state, i.e. when the lot is moving on a conveyor belt or in a duct/pipe as a continuous stream. Professional sampling equipment (and professional samplers) shall be able to sample both stationary (e.g. truck, train or pile) as well as moving (dynamic) lots in a documentable representative manner.
M&W JAWO Sampling is a specialist company, which has invested considerable time and practical efforts in understanding and combining mechanical & electrical design of individual machines/instruments/equipment and their interaction so as to match the materiel types sampled, with reference to relevant material standards and to the Theory of Sampling (TOS).
Correctly designed sampling equipment and a representative sampling plan is necessary in order to obtain reliable knowledge of the material properties which is essential for commercial, operational and technical characterization. These properties are:
- Moisture content
- Mineral proportions
- Particle Size distribution
A full sampling system solution takes care of the critically important primary sampling stage with an aim of attaining a fit-for-purpose representativity status. All subsequent sub-sampling stages comply with the same demands, ultimately delivering an analytical aliquot suitable for laboratory analysis.
Practical benefits of representative sampling – “what’s in it for you”
By operating our automated sampling solutions you are getting reliable knowledge about the properties of the material you buy, sell or produce enabling you to:
- Calculate the correct amount or value for each batch of material you receive or deliver – thereby reducing the risk of either overpaying or underselling
- Confirm that you receive or sell products which meet contract requirements
- Monitor and optimize your production and quality control process
- Improve your mixing and blending operations to obtain better end-products
- Estimate type and amounts of by-products from your processed or manufactured batches
- Document the environmental impact and/or pollution from your production
- For customers where larger or expensive quantities of material are bought or sold, the economic impact of ensuring representative and consistent samples will be substantial.
- By buying the right sampling solution you are likely to save a lot of money.
Note: It is important to resolve all potential issues related to primary sampling accuracy (sampling bias) before establishing a new, modifying or re-designing a specific sampling procedure. After this has been achieved, i.e. when a sampling procedure is developed or re-evaluated in combination with the continued use of all, or most of the sampling equipment recommended by M&W JAWO and for example checked by means of a full bias test or alternatively through a variographic or replicate analysis, the remaining final sampling uncertainty only has to deal with sampling precision.
General M&W JAWO Sampling procedure (variations occur reflecting different material heterogeneities):
- Define the quality parameter(s) i.e. the analyses of interest
- Delineate and prepare the lot (geometry, total mass, accessibility)
- Select equipment matching appropriate sampling accuracy demands; fully representative or fit-for-purpose representativity
- Set the remaining sampling precision required (for example 20% rel.)
- Estimate primary sampling variability VI for the selected quality parameter(s), and establish the number of sampling unit’s (m) required to reach the desired precision level with a minimum number of increments (n)
- For process sampling, define sampling intervals in minutes for time basis sampling, or in kg for mass-based sampling
- Ascertain the material nominal top particle size in order to determine the appropriate increment mass
- Determine the number of increments to be aggregated into composite samples (which is to be further sub-sampled)
- Determine optimal sample division (sub-sampling) in order to deliver an analytical aliquot mass
Sampling precision and the number of increments
In all methods of sampling, sample preparation and analysis, errors are incurred, and the analytical results for any given parameter will deviate from the true value of that parameter. While the absolute deviation of a single result from the “true” value cannot be determined, it is possible to make an estimate of the sampling precision. This is the closeness with which the results of a series of measurements made on the same material agree among themselves, and the deviation of the mean of the results from an accepted reference value.
The desired overall precision for a lot is normally agreed between the parties concerned. In principle it is possible to design a sampling scheme by which an arbitrary level of precision can be achieved.
The overall precision can be estimated using Equation 1 where:
- PL [%] is the estimated index of overall precision of sampling, sample preparation and testing for the lot;
- VI is the primary increment variance;
- VPT is the preparation and testing variance;
- n is the number of increments per sub-lot;
- m is the number of sub-lots in the lot.
If no previous sampling data is available, assumptions have to be made about the variability in order to devise a sampling scheme. After implementation of the sampling scheme, the precision actually achieved for a particular lot by the devised scheme can be measured.
If a given precision PL is required, the number of increments n and the number of sub-lots m can be found using Equation 2 and Equation 3 respectively. If necessary, one of the values (n or m) is fixed and another is recalculated until a convenient combination is achieved.
Mass of primary increment
The mass of each primary increment taken by a cross-stream sampler at the discharge from the conveyor belt can be calculated using Equation 4 where:
- C is the flow rate [t/h] on the conveyor belt;
- b is the cutter aperture width [mm] (b should be ≥ 3 times the nominal top size of the sampled material);
- VC is cutter speed [m/s].
For a cross-belt (hammer) sampler, the mass of primary increment can be calculated using Equation 5 where:
- C is the flow rate [t/h] on the conveyor belt;
- b is the cutter aperture width [mm] (b should be ≥ 3 times the nominal top size of the sampled material);
- VB is the belt speed [m/s].
During the design of the sampling system, increment masses that are close to those expected to be taken by the system can be used. After implementation of the sampling scheme, the precision of the result can be estimated and adjusted by increasing or decreasing the number of increments in the sample, keeping the same increment mass.
Sample division and minimum mass of sample
To obtain convenient sample masses along the partway from lot to analytical aliquot, the sample is often divided into a number of equal smaller sub-samples, and a residual which is returned to the conveyor.
In order to facilitate a required division while retaining the representative nature of the sample, it may be necessary to crush the material. For this reason, a complete system for extraction of representative samples consists of multistage sampling, particle size reduction and division (sub-sampling) equipment. It is also sometimes beneficial to mix the resulting sub-samples thoroughly after each of these operations, to achieve even higher precision.
Minimum Mass of Sample
For most parameters, the precision of the result is limited by the ability of the sample to represent all the particle sizes in the material being sampled. There is a minimum mass of sample, dependent on the maximum particle size of the material, the type of analysis, the precision required for the parameter concerned and the relationship of that parameter to particle size. Such a relationship applies at all stages of preparation. The attainment of this mass will not, by itself, guarantee the required precision. This is also dependent on the number of increments taken to compound the sample and their variability.
Table 2: Minimum mass of sample (example: coal)
Bias (or sampling bias):
A systematic error between the average analytical sampling result and the true lot concentration i.e. accuracy which originates from inaccurate (biased) sampling equipment and/or sampling processes which leads to results that on average are higher or lower than the true value. Elimination of the sampling bias is the first and key requirement to ensure that any sampling process is correct.
An increment extracted by a sampler.
Composite (Gross) Sample:
A material sample consisting of all the primary increments taken from a sub-lot.
A sub-sampling process, in which the sample is divided into a number of smaller portions, with equal properties.
The complete entity of original material targeted for sampling e.g. industrial batch, ship’s cargo, truck load etc. The lot refers both to the physical, the geometrical form and size as well as the characteristics of the material being subject to sampling and specifically its heterogeneity.
Nominal top size:
The smallest sieve opening on which not more than 5% of the sample is retained.
Expressed in % and within 95% confidence level.
The amount of material which the primary sampling tool extracts from a material stream, or a stationary lot, in one cut.
Equally sized part of a lot, which properties are to be determined.
The quantity of material consisting of all the increments taken from a lot/sub-lot. A representative sample retains the properties of the lot.
An extracted mass that is not a result of a representative sampling process. Specimens are not worth analyzing as they cannot give reliable representative information of the lot.